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Citation Style Guide  

This page links to materials with information that will help in creating footnotes, in text citations, and bibliographies, reference lists and works cited pages.
Last Updated: Mar 25, 2014 URL: http://subjectguides.library.american.edu/citation Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts

Know Which Style To Use Print Page
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Warning

Some of the library's database subscriptions do not generate citations in correct formats for certain styles. Please check your work and use the resources in this guide to ensure accuracy.

 

Overview

The key to citing any source is to:

  1. be consistent in style and format;
  2. have a clear and neat format;
  3. present sufficient information for a reader to identify and find the work or cited passage;
  4. NOT make up your own rules.

For citing material from the Web, two additional pieces of information are usually needed:

  1. the electronic address or URL of the site (e.g. http://...)
  2. the date you accessed the site or database
     

    Citation Styles

    Citation Styles:

    AAA - American Anthropological Association Bluebook
      ACS - American Chemical Society Chicago
      AIP -  American Institute of Physics CSE - Council of Science Editors
    ALWD - Association of Legal Writing Directors Harvard Business School
      AMA - American Medical Association ISA - International Studies Association
      AMS - American Mathematical Society
    LSA - Linguistic Society of America
    AP -   Associated Press  Maroonbook
    APA - American Psychological Association  MLA - Modern Language Association
    APSA - American Political Science Association  NLM - National Library of Medicine
    ASA - American Sociological Association Turabian

    Types of Materials:

      Film Resources
      Government Publications


    Citation Styles

    AAA (American Anthropological Association) - used in Anthropology
    Based on the Chicago Manual of Style.

    • AAA Style Guide 2009 (PDF) - Official rules on reference cited lists and citing references in text. Where no rule is present on this list, follow the Chicago Manual of Style. From American Anthropological Association.

    ACS (American Chemical Society) - used in Chemistry  

    • The ACS Style Guide has the offiical citation rules from the American Chemical Society. At this time there is no online version of the book ACS Style Guide available to the general public.  Use either the print copy or an online guide based on the 3rd edition like those listed below.
    • ACS Style Guide - From Williams College Libraries.
    • ACS Style Guidelines - From University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries.
    • The ACS Style Guide Effective Communication of Scientific Information (3rd ed., 2006).
      (Call number: Ready Reference QD8.5 .A25 2006.) AU Library has print copy.

    AIP (American Institute of Physics) - used in Physics, particularly for American Instutitue of Physics journals

    • AIP Style Manual - Official rules from the AIP Style Manual, 4th ed. (1990) with a 1997 addendum. Available for download. From American Institute of Physics.

    ALWD (Association of Legal Writing Directors) - used in Legal Studies. Also see the Bluebook.

    AMA (American Medical Association) - used in Medical Sciences 

    • AMA Reference Citation Format - From New York Medical College.
    • AMA Style Guide - From University of Evansville Libraries.
    • AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th ed., 2007).
      (Call number: Ready Reference R 119.A533 2007.) AU Library has print copy, but does not subscribe to the online version. Contact the library if you would like the library to subscribe to the online version.

    AMS (American Mathematical Society) - used in Mathematics

    AP (Associated Press) - used in Journalism, Public Relations

    • AP Stylebook (AU Community Only) Official version.
    • Associated Press 2010 Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law (45th ed., 2010).
      (Call number: Ready Reference PN 4783 .A83 2010.) AU Library has print copy.

    APA (American Psychological Association) - used in Psychology, Business, Criminology, Economics, Education, Sociology

    • At this time there is no online version of the APA's Publication Manual, 6th edition. Use either the print copy or an online guide like those listed below.
    • APA Style - Includes explanations and detailed discussion. From Purdue University.
    • APA Style: The Social Sciences - From Diana Hacker's book: Research and Documentation Online, 5th edition.
      APA in-text citations, list of references, manuscript format, and a sample paper.
    • Bibme - Creates bibliographies, and one can then download the bibliography as an RTF file. Registration is free.
    • Documenting Sources in APA Style: 2010 Update - Adapted from Hacker/Sommers, The Bedford Handbook, 8th ed. (Boston: Bedford, 2010).
      Part 1 (pdf)
      Part 2 (pdf)
    • Frequently Asked Questions about APA Style - Site also has tutorials for learning the APA Style. From the APA.
    • Son of Citation Machine - Fill in online form and site will generate standard bibliographic and in-text citations.
    • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed., 2010).
      (Call number: Ready Reference PN 147.A4 2010.) Print copies of the latest edition are located in the dictionary stand on every floor of Bender Library.

    APSA (AmericanPolitical Science Association) - used in Political Science, International Studies
    Based on the Chicago Manual of Style.

    ASA (American Sociological Association) - used in Sociology
    Based on the Chicago Manual of Style 

    • The ASA Style Guide has the offiical citation rules from the American Sociological Association. At this time there is no online version of the 4th ed. of the ASA Style Guide. Use either the print copy or an online guide like those listed below.
    • ASA Format (pdf). From California State University, Los Angeles.
    • ASA Style - From Purdue University.
    • American Sociological Association Style Guide (4th edition, 2010).
      (Call number: Ready Reference HM586 .A54 2010.) AU Library has print copy.

    Bluebook - used in Legal Studies

    • There is no online version of the Bluebook available to the whole campus. Use either the print copy or an online guide like those listed below.
    • Bluebook Guide for Law Students - From Suffolk University Law School Library.
    • Bluebook Guide - Introduction - From Georgetown University Law Library.
    • Introduction to Basic Legal Citation by Peter W. Martin - A well organized guide to citing legal sources. Refers to both The Bluebook and the ALWD Citation Manual.
    • The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (19th ed., 2010).
      (Call number: Ready Reference KF245 .B58.) AU Library has print copy.

    Chicago Manual of Style - widely used in the humanites and social sciences

    • Chicago Manual of Style 16th ed. (2010) and 15th ed. (2003) (AU Community Only) Official version.
    • Bibme - Creates bibliographies, and one can then download the bibliography as an RTF file. Registration is free.
    • Son of Citation Machine - Fill in online form and site will generate standard bibliographic and in-text citations.
    • Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed., 2010)
      (Call number: Ready Reference Z253 .U69 2010.) Print copies of the latest edition are located in the dictionary stand on every floor of Bender Library.

    CSE (Council of Science Editors), formerly CBE (Council of Biology Editors) - used in Biology

    • At this time there is no online version of the 7th ed. of the CSE Manual. Use either the print copy or an online guide like those listed below.
    • CSE (CBE) Citation Guide - From Ohio State University.
    • CSE Style: Biology and Other Sciences - From Diana Hacker's book: Research and Documentation Online, 5th edition.
      CSE in-text citations, reference list, manuscript format, and a sample paper.
    • Online Citation Guide: CSE - From Juniata College.
    • Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (7th ed., 2006).
      (Call number: Ready Reference QH 304.C13 2006.) AU Library has print copy.

    Film Resources

    Government Publications

    There is no one citation style for government documents. Follow the rules in the style guide you are using for citing government publications, e.g. Chicago, MLA, etc. If the style guide offers no guidance, only then use the U.S. Government Printing Office or the National Archives guides.

    Harvard Business School - used in Business
    Based on the Chicago Manual of Style.

    ISA (International Studies Association) - used for ISA journals

    LSA Style Sheet - used in Linguistics 

    Maroonbook - used in Legal Studies.  Also see the Bluebook.

    MLA (Modern Language Association) - used in Literature and the humanities  

    • There is no online version of the MLA Handbook available to the whole campus. Use either the print copy or an online guide like those listed below.
    • Bibme - Creates bibliographies, and one can then download the bibliography as an RTF file. Registration is free.
    • Documenting Sources in MLA Style: 2009 Update (PDF). A 60-page booklet that is a supplement to the Diana Hacker handbooks.
      Documenting Sources in MLA Style: 2009 Update (PDF). A 64-page booklet that is a supplement to the Andrea Lunsford handbooks.
    • EasyBib - Fill in online form and site will generate standard bibliographic citations. Only MLA Style is free.
    • MLA Style - Includes explanations and detailed discussion. From Purdue University.
    • MLA Style: English and Other Humanities - From Diana Hacker's book: Research and Documentation Online, 5th edition.
      MLA in-text citations, list of works cited, information notes, manuscript format, and a sample paper.
    • Son of Citation Machine - Fill in online form and site will generate standard bibliographic and in-text citations.
    • MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed., 2009).
      (Call number: Ready Reference LB 2369 .G53 2009.) Print copies of the latest edition are located in the dictionary stand on every floor of Bender Library.
    • MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed., 2008).
      (Call number: Ready Reference PN147 .G444 2008.) AU Library has print copy.

    NLM (National Library of Medicine) - used for Medical publications

    Turabian Style - used in many disciplines in humanities, social sciences and natural sciences (often selected when people do not know which style to use)
    Variation of the Chicago Manual of Style.

    • At this time there is no online version of the 7th ed. of A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations (7th ed., 2007). Use either the print copy or an online guide like those listed below. 
    • Bibme - Creates bibliographies, and one can then download the bibliography as an RTF file. Registration is free.
    • Son of Citation Machine - Fill in online form and site will generate standard bibliographic and in-text citations.
    • Turabian Quick Guide - From the publisher, University of Chicago Press.
    • Turabian Style (PDF) - From University of Georgia.
    • Turabian Style Citations (Notes-Bibliography Style) (PDF) - From Trinity University.
    • Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations (7th ed., 2007).
      (Call number: Ready Reference LB 2369 .T8 2007.) Print copies of the latest edition of are located on every floor of Bender Library.
     

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