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Citing Online Business Sources Using APA


This guide is in the process of being updated to reflect the updated APA 7 guidelines. New entries are in a larger font. 

Please consult various APA 7 resource guides to help build your citations or check your citations. 

Books & eBooks

Elements: Author’s Last name, Author’s First and Middle initials. (Year of publication). Title italicized. Publisher.

Print Book:

Grant, A. (2013). Give and take: A revolutionary approach to success. Viking. 


Aragon, G. A. (2011). Financial ethics: A positivist analysis

**More information about citing an ebook can be found on the APA Style Blog

Book Chapter:

Child, J., Elbanna, S., & Rodrigues, S. (2010). The political aspects of strategic decision making. In P. C. Nutt & D. C. Wilson (Eds.), Handbook of decision making (pp. 105-137). John Wiley and Sons. 

Company Annual Report

Home Depot. (2016). Annual report 2016.

Data Sets

If you use resources like Simmons OneView, Data Planet or the Complete Economic and Demographic Data Source (CEDDS), you will need to know how to cite data sets. Below is an example, and more information can be found at the APA Style Blog.

Bureau of Transportation Statistics. (2017). Airline arrivals on-time (%) from the airline performance - arrivals database - U.S. 11/01/2014 - 04/30/2017 [Data set]. Retrieved from Data-Planet Statistical Datasets database. 

Journal, Magazine & Newspaper Articles

Journal Article:

Elements: Author’s Last name, Author’s First and Middle initials, & Last names and initials of other authors, if any. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal italicized, volume number italicized(Issue number), Page numbers. URL or DOI link

Zhang, X., & Bartol, K. M. (2010). Linking empowering leadership and employee creativity: The influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, and creative process engagement. Academy of Management Journal53(1), 107-128.

Trade Publication or Magazine Article:

Elements: Author’s Last name, Author’s First and Middle initials, & Last names and initials of other authors, if any. (Year, Month and Day of publication, if available). Title of article. Title of Magazine italicized, Volume number italicized(Issue number, if available). URL or DOI link

Dallemule, L., & Davenport, T. H. (2017). What's your data strategy? Harvard Business Review, 95(3), 112-121.

Newspaper Article:

Elements: Author’s Last name, Author’s First and Middle initials, & Last names and initials of other authors, if any. (Year, Month and Day of publication). Title of article. Title of Newspaper italicized. URL for article

Isaac, M., & Seshagiri, A. (2017, June 22). How Uber's brash approach backfired. The New York Times.​

**For more detail on when to use a DOI and when to use a URL, see this APA Style Blog flowchart


Web page citation follows this basic format:  

Author, A. (date of publication). Title of document. http://URL

Author, A. (date of publication). Title of document. http://URL

Note: the title of the website or webpage should be italicized in the reference list if the work on the page stands alone but not italicized if it is part of a greater whole (if this is not clear, choose what you think makes the most sense). 

Author, A. (date of publication). Title of document [Format description]. http://URL

Note: The format description is used only when the format is something out of the ordinary, such as lecture notes; otherwise, it's not necessary. 


Web page or something found on a website:

Deloitte. (2017). Are you ready for Industry 4.0?

Bahney, A. (2018, January 24). Is a travel reward card worth it?


Web page where no author is identified:

United reports December 2017 operational performance. (2018, January 9).


Web page where no date is identified:

American University. (n.d.). Kogod School of Business - Our story.


Kantar Media. (n.d.). Internet display: Peloton exercise equipment/Peloton Tread: treadmill [Peloton digital advertising spend for April 2020] [Data set]. Ad$pender Online. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from


Advertising Rebooks. (2018). FedEx Corporation - Annual measured U.S. media spend. Retrieved January 3, 2018 from Advertising Redbooks database.  

BMI Research

BMI Reseach. (2017, September). Worldwide pharmaceutical market factbook. Retrieved from BMI Research database. 

BMI Research. (2017). Power key project database - hydropower in Africa [Data set]. Retrieved September 25, 2017 from BMI Research database.* 

*The date of access for the data set is included in the citation because the Power Key Project Database content changes over time as projects are started and completed. 

D&B Million Dollar Database

Dun & Bradstreet. (2018). Ford Motor Company - Executive details. Retrieved January 23, 2018 from the D&B Million Dollar Database. 

Data Planet Statistical Datasets

Administrative Office of the U.S. Court. (2017). Business bankruptcies from the bankruptcy database - State - California 2001-2017 [Data set]. Retrieved from Data-Planet Statistical Datasets. 

EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) Resources

The Economist Intelligence Unit. (2017). Country report: Lithuania. Retrieved September 25, 2017 from EUI Country Reports database. 

The Economist Intelligence Unit. (2014, May). Country commerce: Malaysia. Retrieved September 25, 2017 from EUI Country Commerce database. 



Kantar Media. (2016, October). Digital activities in Peru, 2016. Retrieved from eMarketer database.

Williamson, D. A. (2017, January). Measuring influencer marketing: a guide for marketers. Retrieved from eMarketer database.

eMarketer. (2017, August). US Snapchat ad revenue and users, 2011-2021. Retrieved from eMarketer database.

Euromonitor Passport

Examples for reports with/without an author and with/without a date. 

Homma, A. (2020, February 24). Apparel and footwear in the US [Country report]. Passport. 

Euromonitor. (n.d.). Apparel and footwear USA [Market sizes]. Passport. Retrieved May 20, 2020, from 

Euromonitor. (2018, February 8). Population change as a megatrend driver [Briefing]. Passport. 

Euromonitor. (n.d.) Apparel and footwear dashboard: Store-based retailing [Chart]. Passport.  Retrieved June 4, 2020, from 

First Research

First Research. (2018, January 15). Industry profile - Hospitals - Critical issues. Retrieved from First Research database. 

First Research. (2018). Industry prospector - Human resource metrics - Employment wages. Retrieved January 15, 2018 from First Research database. 

Gartner Research

Willemsen, B. (2017, July 20). Hype cycle for privacy. Retrieved from Gartner Research Portal. 

Mohan, S. (2017, August 17). Data governance in the time of big data architectures [Webinar]. Retrieved from Gartner Research Portal. 


Hoover’s, Inc. (n.d.). Berkshire Hathaway – Competition – Competitive landscape. Retrieved June 21, 2017 from Hoover’s database. 

IBISWorld Reports

If the report has a unique identifier number, use it in parentheses after the title. In this case, include a more specific description in the brackets than just [Industry report] as is often used elsewhere, because IBIS has risk and other reports as well as global, state, and other levels of industry reports, and sometimes the titles and numbers are the same. 

Diment, D. (2019, December). Corporate wellness services (OD4621) [U.S. specialized industry report] . IBISWorld.

IMF eLibrary

International Monetary Fund. (2017). Consumer Price Index - Cross-country indexes, year-over-year change [Data set]. Retrieved October 21, 2017 from the IMF eLibrary. 

Key Business Ratios

Dun & Bradstreet. (2018). Reports - Industry - Motion pictures. Retrieved January 7, 2018 from Key Business Ratios database.

Dun & Bradstreet. (2016). Ratios - Industry - Profitability. Retrieved March 13, 2016 from Key Business Ratios database.

MarketResearch Reports

Waxman, H. (2017, July). Meal kit delivery services in the U.S., 2nd edition. Retrieved from Academic database.


Example when retrieved directly from the MarketLine database:

MarketLine. (2019). Renewable energy in Mexico [Industry profile]. 

MarketLine. (2019). Immunology influencer network: Influencer analytics 2/27/2020 - 5/27/2020. 


Example when retrieved from Business Source Complete:

MarketLine. (2020). Air freight in Australia [Industry profile]. Business Source Complete.

Mergent Online

Mergent. (n.d.). Hain Celestial Group [Company profile]. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from 

Mergent. (n.d.). Hain Celestial Group: R. Dean Hollis [Executive bio]. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from 

Mintel Reports

You may need to use a search engine to find the URL for a particular report. 

Reports, articles, etc: 

Failla, J. (2020, April). Quick service restaurants - US. Mintel. 

Market Sizes content:

Mintel. (n.d.). Shampoo & conditioners: Retail market segmentation by values. Retrieved May 28, 2020, from 

MSCI ESG Manager

MSCI ESG Research LLC. (2017, July 26). GlaxoSmithKline ESG ratings report. Retrieved from MSCI ESG Direct database.

MSCI ESG Research LLC. (2017, March). Beverage industry report. Retrieved from MSCI ESG Direct database.

OECD iLibrary

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2018). Russian Federation. Main Economic Indicators, 2018(1). Retrieved from OECD iLibrary. 

International Energy Agency (IEA). (2012). Understanding energy challenges in India: policies, players and issues. Retrieved from OECD iLibrary.    

S&P NetAdvantage

Company Profile:

S&P Capital IQ. (2016, October 14). Ford Motor – Company estimates & opinions. Retrieved from NetAdvantage database.

Industry Survey:

Snyder, K. (2017, February). Health care providers & services – Industry survey. Retrieved from NetAdvantage database.

Simmons Insights

Since the title of the dataset is not very descriptive of your particular data retrieved, include a description of the variables you used so that somebody else could figure out what you did. 

MRI-Simmons. (2017). Spring 2017 NHCS adult study 12 month [Cell phones / smartphones brands owned by consumer demographics - age, gender, household income] [Data set]. 

MRI-Simmons. (2017). Spring 2017 NHCS adult study 6 month [Computer software types owned by age] [Data set].


SimplyAnalytics (2017). Map with 2016 Consumer Expenditure Data. Retrieved February 7th, 2017, from SimplyAnalytics database.


Statistics, Dossiers, and Reports

Look under the Source section for “Survey by” -- that is the author

Daniel Research Group. (2019, September). Unit shipments of mobile personal computers (PCs) and laptops in the United States, from 2013 to 2023 (in millions) [Chart]. Statista. 

Anything without a named author: 

Statista. (2020, May). Laptops & tablets [Consumer market outlook]. 



Armstrong, M. (2020, June 4). UK government approval on the slide [Infographic]. Statista. 


Kantar Media. (n.d). Car and Driver [Publication Profile]. Retrieved June 7, 2015, from SRDS Media Planning database.

Claritas. (2017). Pop-Fact Demographics Report: All Nielsen Designated Market Areas (DMA). Retrieved November 13, 2017, from Claritas Segmentation & Market Solutions database.

Wall Street Transcript

The Wall Street Transcript. (2017, November 7). Interview with the CFO and the Chief Business Officer: Nuevolution. Retrieved from