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Citing Online Business Sources Using APA

Books & eBooks

Print Book:

Grant, A. (2013). Give and take: A revolutionary approach to success. New York, NY: Viking. 


Aragon, G. A. (2011). Financial ethics: A positivist analysis

**More information about citing an ebook can be found on the APA Style Blog

Book Chapter:

Child, J., Elbanna, S., & Rodrigues, S. (2010). The political aspects of strategic decision making. In P. C. Nutt & D. C. Wilson (Eds.), Handbook of decision making (pp. 105-137). Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons. 

Company Annual Report

Home Depot. (2016). Annual report 2016. Retrieved from

Data Sets

If you use resources like Simmons OneView, Data Planet or the Complete Economic and Demographic Data Source (CEDDS), you will need to know how to cite data sets. Below is an example, and more information can be found at the APA Style Blog.

Bureau of Transportation Statistics. (2017). Airline arrivals on-time (%) from the airline performance - arrivals database - U.S. 11/01/2014 - 04/30/2017 [Data set]. Retrieved from Data-Planet Statistical Datasets database. 

Journal, Magazine & Newspaper Articles

Journal Article:

Zhang, X., & Bartol, K. M. (2010). Linking empowering leadership and employee creativity: The influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, and creative process engagement. Academy of Management Journal53(1), 107-128.

Magazine Article:

Dallemule, L., & Davenport, T. H. (2017). What's your data strategy? Harvard Business Review, 95(3), 112-121. Retrieved from

Newspaper Article:

Isaac, M., & Seshagiri, A. (2017, June 22). How Uber's brash approach backfired. The New York Times. Retrieved from​

**For more detail on when to use a DOI and when to use a URL, see this APA Style Blog flowchart


Web page citation follows this basic format:  

Author, A. (date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://URL

Author, A. (date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://URL

Note: the title of the website or webpage should be italicized in the reference list if the work on the page stands alone but not italicized if it is part of a greater whole (if this is not clear, choose what you think makes the most sense). 

Author, A. (date of publication). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved from http://URL

Note: The format description is used only when the format is something out of the ordinary, such as lecture notes; otherwise, it's not necessary. 


Web page or something found on a website:

Deloitte. (2017). Are you ready for Industry 4.0? Retrieved from

Bahney, A. (2018, January 24). Is a travel reward card worth it? Retrieved from


Web page where no author is identified:

United reports December 2017 operational performance. (2018, January 9). Retrieved from


Web page where no date is identified:

American University. (n.d.). Kogod School of Business - Our story. Retrieved from


Kantar Media. (2017). Target: Media mix report, 2016-2017 [Data]. Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Ad$pender database.

Kantar Media. (2017). Le Pain Quotidien: Trend report, annual, 2017 [Data]. Retrieved April 12, 2017 from Ad$pender database.


Advertising Rebooks. (2018). FedEx Corporation - Annual measured U.S. media spend. Retrieved January 3, 2018 from Advertising Redbooks database.  

BMI Research

BMI Reseach. (2017, September). Worldwide pharmaceutical market factbook. Retrieved from BMI Research database. 

BMI Research. (2017). Power key project database - hydropower in Africa [Data set]. Retrieved September 25, 2017 from BMI Research database.* 

*The date of access for the data set is included in the citation because the Power Key Project Database content changes over time as projects are started and completed. 

D&B Million Dollar Database

Dun & Bradstreet. (2018). Ford Motor Company - Executive details. Retrieved January 23, 2018 from the D&B Million Dollar Database. 

Data Planet Statistical Datasets

Administrative Office of the U.S. Court. (2017). Business bankruptcies from the bankruptcy database - State - California 2001-2017 [Data set]. Retrieved from Data-Planet Statistical Datasets. 

EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit) Resources

The Economist Intelligence Unit. (2017). Country report: Lithuania. Retrieved September 25, 2017 from EUI Country Reports database. 

The Economist Intelligence Unit. (2014, May). Country commerce: Malaysia. Retrieved September 25, 2017 from EUI Country Commerce database. 



Kantar Media. (2016, October). Digital activities in Peru, 2016. Retrieved from eMarketer database.

Williamson, D. A. (2017, January). Measuring influencer marketing: a guide for marketers. Retrieved from eMarketer database.

eMarketer. (2017, August). US Snapchat ad revenue and users, 2011-2021. Retrieved from eMarketer database.

Euromonitor Passport

Euromonitor International. (2017, June 27). Health and wellness in South Africa. Retrieved from Euromonitor Passport database. 

Euromonitor International. (n.d.). Tea – Middle East and Africa – Brand shares. Retrieved July 14, 2017 from Euromonitor Passport database.

Dutton, S. (2017, April 13). Consumer foodservice 2017: Key insights. Retrieved from Euromonitor Passport database. 

First Research

First Research. (2018, January 15). Industry profile - Hospitals - Critical issues. Retrieved from First Research database. 

First Research. (2018). Industry prospector - Human resource metrics - Employment wages. Retrieved January 15, 2018 from First Research database. 

Gartner Research

Willemsen, B. (2017, July 20). Hype cycle for privacy. Retrieved from Gartner Research Portal. 

Mohan, S. (2017, August 17). Data governance in the time of big data architectures [Webinar]. Retrieved from Gartner Research Portal. 


Hoover’s, Inc. (n.d.). Berkshire Hathaway – Competition – Competitive landscape. Retrieved June 21, 2017 from Hoover’s database. 

IBISWorld Reports

Palmer, T. (2017, March). Crowdsourcing service providers in the US - IBISWorld industry report OD5672. Retrieved from IBISWorld database.

IMF eLibrary

International Monetary Fund. (2017). Consumer Price Index - Cross-country indexes, year-over-year change [Data set]. Retrieved October 21, 2017 from the IMF eLibrary. 

Key Business Ratios

Dun & Bradstreet. (2018). Reports - Industry - Motion pictures. Retrieved January 7, 2018 from Key Business Ratios database.

Dun & Bradstreet. (2016). Ratios - Industry - Profitability. Retrieved March 13, 2016 from Key Business Ratios database.

MarketResearch Reports

Waxman, H. (2017, July). Meal kit delivery services in the U.S., 2nd edition. Retrieved from Academic database.


MarketLine. (2017, April). Industry profile: Car manufacturing in China. Retrieved from MarketLine database. 

Mergent Online

Mergent, Inc. (n.d.). Delta Airlines, Inc. - Company financials - Analysis. Retrieved September 16, 2016, from Mergent Online database.

Facebook, Inc. (2, February 2017). 2016 Form 10-K. Retrieved from Mergent Online database.   

Mergent, Inc. (2016). Brazil: Country profile. Retrieved from Mergent Online database. 

Mintel Reports

Macke, D. (2017, June). Marketing to Millennials - US. Retrieved from Mintel Oxygen Academic database. 

MSCI ESG Manager

MSCI ESG Research LLC. (2017, July 26). GlaxoSmithKline ESG ratings report. Retrieved from MSCI ESG Direct database.

MSCI ESG Research LLC. (2017, March). Beverage industry report. Retrieved from MSCI ESG Direct database.

OECD iLibrary

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2018). Russian Federation. Main Economic Indicators, 2018(1). Retrieved from OECD iLibrary. 

International Energy Agency (IEA). (2012). Understanding energy challenges in India: policies, players and issues. Retrieved from OECD iLibrary.    

S&P NetAdvantage

Company Profile:

S&P Capital IQ. (2016, October 14). Ford Motor – Company estimates & opinions. Retrieved from NetAdvantage database.

Industry Survey:

Snyder, K. (2017, February). Health care providers & services – Industry survey. Retrieved from NetAdvantage database.

Simmons OneView

Simmons Research LLC. (2014). Spring 2014 NHCS adult study 06-month [Data set]. Available from Simmons OneView database.


SimplyAnalytics (2017). Map with 2016 Consumer Expenditure Data. Retrieved February 7th, 2017, from SimplyAnalytics database.


Statista. (2017). Banking and finance: U.S. industry report. Retrieved from Statista database. 

Starbucks Corporation. (2016). Number of Starbucks stores in the United States from 2005 to 2016 [Chart]. Retrieved from Statista database.  


Kantar Media. (n.d). Car and Driver [Publication Profile]. Retrieved June 7, 2015, from SRDS Media Planning database.

Claritas. (2017). Pop-Fact Demographics Report: All Nielsen Designated Market Areas (DMA). Retrieved November 13, 2017, from Claritas Segmentation & Market Solutions database.

Wall Street Transcript

The Wall Street Transcript. (2017, November 7). Interview with the CFO and the Chief Business Officer: Nuevolution. Retrieved from